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The 5-Second Trick For Impedance Spectroscopy



Electrical Impedance Tomography for Cardio-Pulmonary Monitoring


Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a bedside monitor that does not require any surgery to see the local airflow and , possibly, lung perfusion distribution. This article reviews and discusses the methodological and clinical aspects of thoracic EIT. Initially, researchers focused on the possibility of using EIT to assess regional ventilation. The current research focuses on clinical applications of EIT to measure lung collapse tidal recruitment, and lung overdistension. The goal is to monitor positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and Tidal volume. In addition, EIT may help to detect pneumothorax. Recent studies looked at EIT as a way to assess regional lung perfusion. The absence of indicators in EIT measurements could be adequate to measure continuously the cardiac stroke volume. The use of a contrast agent like saline may be necessary for assessing regional perfusion of the lungs. As a result, EIT-based monitoring of regional respiration and lung perfusion can reveal local ventilation and perfusion matching that could prove useful in the treatment of patients with chronic respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Keywords: electrical impedance tmography bioimpedance, image reconstruction Thorax; regional airflow; regional perfusion; monitoring

1. Introduction

Electronic impedance transmission (EIT) is one of the radiation-free functional imaging technology that permits non-invasive monitoring at bedside of both regional lung ventilation , and possibly perfusion. Commercially available EIT devices were introduced to allow clinical application of this technique and thoracic EIT has been successfully used for both pediatric and adult patients [ 1., 1.

2. Basics of Impedance Spectroscopy

Impedance Spectroscopy may be described as the variation in the voltage of biological tissue to externally applied alternating electronic current (AC). It is typically achieved by using four electrodes, where two are employed for AC injection, and the remaining two for voltage measurement [ 3.,]. Thoracic EIT measures the regional Impedance Spectroscopy distribution in the thoracic region. It can be considered as an expansion of the principle of four electrodes to the image plane , which is covered with the belt of electrodes [ 11. In terms of dimension, electrical impedance (Z) is exactly the same as resistance. the International System of Units (SI) unit is Ohm (O). It can be conveniently expressed as a complex number in which the real component is resistance, while the imaginary portion is called reactance, which is the measurement of effects caused by the inductance of capacitance. The amount of capacitance is determined by biomembranes’ characteristics of a tissue , for example, ion channels and fatty acids as well as gap junctions. Resistance is mostly determined by the content and quantity of extracellular fluid [ 1, 2]. In frequencies that are less than 5 kilohertz (kHz) that is, electrical energy circulates through extracellular fluids and is primarily dependent on the resistive characteristics of the tissues. In higher frequencies above 50 kHz, electrical impulses are slightly diverted at cell membranes which leads to an increase in capacitive tissues properties. At frequencies above 100 kHz electric currents are able to travel through cell membranes, reducing the capacitive component 21 2. So, the results that determine the tissue’s impedance depend on the utilized stimulation frequency. Impedance Spectroscopy usually refers to conductivity and resistivity. They normalize resistance or conductance to unit size and length. The SI units that correspond to it consist of Ohm-meter (O*m) for resistivity and Siemens per meters (S/m) on conductivity. Resistivity of thoracic tissue ranges from 150 o*cm for blood up to 700 O*cm for tissues that have been deflated and inflated, to all the way to 2400O*cm for an inflated lung tissue ( Table 1). In general, the tissue’s resistance or conductivity is a function of volume of the fluid and the amount of ions. When it comes to lung function, this also depends on the amount of air inside the alveoli. While the majority of tissues exhibit isotropic behavior, heart and muscles of the skeletal are anisotropic. which means that resistance strongly depends on the direction in which it’s measured.

Table 1. The electrical resistivity of the thoracic muscles.

3. EIT Measurements and Image Reconstruction

For EIT measurements electrodes are placed around the chest in a transverse plane which is typically located between the 4th and 5th intercostal space (ICS) in Parasternal Line [55. The changes in impedance are measured in areas of the lower part of the left and right lungs as well as in the heart area ,2[ 1,2]. The placement of the electrodes below the 6th ICS could be difficult because the abdominal contents and diaphragm occasionally enter the measurement area.

Electrodes can be self-adhesive or single electrodes (e.g., electrocardiogram ECG,) which are placed with equal spacing between the electrodes or are embedded in electrode belts ,22. Self-adhesive stripes are also readily available for a user-friendly application ,21. Chest wounds, chest tubes (non-conductive) bandages or wire sutures can hinder or significantly affect EIT measurements. Commercially available EIT equipment typically uses 16 electrodes, but EIT systems with 8 or 32 electrodes is available (please consult Table 2 for more details) (see Table 2 for details). ,2[ 1,2].

Table 2. Electronic impedance tomography (EIT) equipment.

During an EIT measure sequence, small AC (e.g. 5, microamps at 100 kHz) are applied to several electrode pairs, and the resultant voltages are recorded using the remaining other electrodes [ ]. Bioelectrical impedance that is measured between the injecting and measuring electrode pairs can be calculated by using the applied current and the measured voltages. Most commonly adjacent electrode pairs are utilized to allow AC application within a 16-elektrode configuration however 32-elektrode systems usually use a skip pattern (see Table 2.) for increasing the spacing between the electrodes for current injection. The voltages that result are then measured by using all the electrodes. Presently, there’s an ongoing debate about the various electrical stimulation techniques and their unique advantages and disadvantages [7]. In order to obtain an complete EIT data set of bioelectrical measurements that are injected and electrode pairs that measure are continually rotating around the entire thorax .

1. Current measurements and voltage measurements in the thorax using an EIT system with 16 electrodes. Within milliseconds, simultaneously, the current electrode and their active voltage electrodes are repeatedly turned within the thorax.

The AC that is used in EIT tests is safe to use on the body and is not detectable by the individual patient. For safety reasons, the use of EIT in patients with electrically active devices (e.g., cardiac pacemakers or cardioverter-defibrillators) is not recommended.

A EIT data set which is recorded over a single cycle from AC Applications is termed a frame and contains the voltage measurements used to create this unprocessed EIT image. Frame rate is the number of EIT frames recorded each second. Frame rates of no less than 10 images/s are necessary to monitor ventilation and 25 images/s in order to monitor the cardiac function or perfusion. Commercially available EIT equipment uses frames with a frame rate between 40 and 50 images/s [2], as depicted in

In order to create EIT images from the captured frames, an algorithm known as reconstructing of images is carried out. Reconstruction algorithms strive to resolve the reverse problem of EIT which is the recovery of the conductivity distribution in the thorax by analyzing the voltage measurements that have been recorded at the electrodes that are on the thorax’s surface. Initially, EIT reconstruction assumed that electrodes were placed on an ellipsoid, circular or circular plane. However, newer techniques take into account the anatomical structure of the thorax. Presently, there is there are three main algorithms used for EIT: the Sheffield back-projection algorithm [ and the finite element method (FEM) using a linearized Newton–Raphson algorithm [ ], and the Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT) [10are often employed.

As a rule, EIT pictures are similar with a two-dimensional computed (CT) image. These images are normally rendered so that the operator is looking from cranial to caudal when analysing the image. Contrary to an CT image, an EIT image does not show an actual “slice” but an “EIT sensitivity region” [1111. The EIT sensitization region is a lens-shaped intrathoracic region in which changes in impedance contribute to the EIT production of the image [1111. The shape and size of the EIT area of sensitivity are dependent upon the dimensions, the bioelectrical properties, and also the form of the thorax with the type of current injection and voltage measurement pattern [1212.

Time-difference Imaging is a method that is used for EIT reconstruction to show variations in conductivity and not the pure conductivity amounts. An time-difference EIT image compares changes in impedance against a baseline frame. It is an opportunity to track the time-dependent physiological changes such as respiratory ventilation and perfusion [2]. Color coding of EIT images isn’t uniform, but usually displays the change in impedance in relation to a reference level (2). EIT images are typically encoded using a color scheme that is rainbow-like with red representing the greatest proportional impedance (e.g. during inspiration) and green for a middle relative impedance and blue the least relative impedance (e.g. when the expiration time is). In clinical settings An interesting approach is to use color-scales that range from black (no impedance change) from blue (intermediate impedance change), and white (strong impedance changes) for coded ventilation. from black, to white, for mirror perfusion.

2. Different color codes are available for EIT images when compared with the CT scan. The rainbow-color scheme uses red to indicate the highest value of impedance relative (e.g., during inspiration) as well as green for a moderate relative impedance, and blue to indicate the least relative imperceptibility (e.g. at expiration). A more recent color scale uses instead black for no impedance changes) and blue for an intermediate impedance shift, as well as white for the greatest impedance changes.

4. Functional Imaging and EIT Waveform Analysis

Analyzing Impedance Analyzers data is done using EIT waveforms created by individual image pixels within a series of raw EIT images over long periods of (Figure 3.). A region of interest (ROI) can be defined as a summary of activity in specific pixels of the image. Within every ROI, the waveform shows changes in the region’s conductivity over time resulting from breathing (ventilation-related signal, also known as VRS) or cardiac activity (cardiac-related signal CRS). Additionally, electrically conducting contrast agents like hypertonic saltsaline may be used in the production of an EIT signal (indicator-based signal IBS) which may be related to lung perfusion. The CRS could be a result of both the lung and the cardiac region, and could be partially linked to lung perfusion. The exact source and composition aren’t understood completely 1313. Frequency spectrum analysis has been used to distinguish between ventilation- and cardiac-related Impedance Analyzers changes. Impedance changes that are not periodic could result from changes in settings for the ventilator.

Figure 3. EIT Waveforms as well as functional EIT (fEIT) Images can be derived from EIT raw EIT images. EIT waves can be described by pixel or on a particular region of interest (ROI). Conductivity changes result naturally from breathing (VRS) or the activity of cardiac muscles (CRS) but they may be caused artificially, e.g. through IBS (IBS) for perfusion measurements. FEIT images are a visual representation of regional physiological parameters such as ventilation (V) as well as perfusion (Q) that are extracted from the raw EIT images using a mathematical operation over time.

Functional EIT (fEIT) images are generated by applying a mathematical procedure on an array of raw images together with the appropriate pixel EIT waveforms [14]. Since the mathematical operation is used to determine an appropriate physiological parameter for each pixel. Regional physiological characteristics such as regional ventilation (V) and respiratory system compliance as also the regional flow (Q) can be determined in a visual display (Figure 3.). Data generated from EIT waveforms , as well as concurrently registered airway pressure values can be used to determine the lung compliance and lung opening and closing in each pixel using the changes in pressure and impedance (volume). The comparable EIT measurements of the inflation and deflation steps of lung volume allow for the display of pressure-volume curves on scales of pixel. Based on the mathematical procedure, different kinds of fEIT images might address distinct functional characteristics from the cardio-pulmonary apparatus.

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Excellent Article With Many Great Tips About Public Speaking



The subject of public speaking is one that really can strike fear in the hearts of a large number of people. Whether in a classroom setting or a corporate environment, this phobia can actually be quite a hinderance to a successful life. Keep reading to learn how to get this fear in hand once and for all. Check now

When you speak in public, preparation is critical. Be aware of all you would like to say. If you’re not sure of a particular fact, it’s best to do your research before stating it. Jot down the things you wish to convey. Practice your speech until you know it by heart. This will boost your confidence and impress your audience too.

 Don’t downgrade your dream just to fit your reality, upgrade your conviction to match your destiny.

Find one person in the crowd who looks trustworthy and focus on them. Pretend like the two of you are the only people in the room. A major reason why people are scared of speaking in public is because of the amount of people in the room. If you just focus on one person, you will forget anyone else is there.

Make sure that the beginning of your speech is a moment to relax. Greet and address your audience. Then pause for three seconds. This gives them a chance to focus on you, while you get a moment to transform your nervous energy into enthusiasm for the material you are about to deliver.

If you will be speaking in public, watch some video footage of some of the most famous speeches. Study their delivery of the speech, what information was included in the speech and how they actively engaged their audience. Then, use this information to help you deliver an unforgettable speech.

See more Project your voice when you speak in front of an audience. This is particularly true if you do not have the benefit of a microphone. You want everyone in the room to be able to hear you, so do not be afraid to speak as loudly as necessary to accomplish that. There is no point in making a speech that most of the audience cannot hear.

You are braver than you believe, stronger than you seem and smarter than you think.

Do not chew gum or eat when you are making a speech. The chewing is unprofessional and distracts your audience. It is permissible to sip from a glass of water occasionally so that your throat does not get dry. Keep that to a minimum too, as it serves as a distraction from your message.

Take your time while delivering your speech. One sure fired way for the audience to know that you are nervous is to rush through your speech. Instead, take a deep breath and calm your nerves before beginning. Speak slightly slower than normal when giving a speech to ensure that your audience understands what you are saying.

If you will be speaking in public, watch some video footage of some of the most famous speeches. Study their delivery of the speech, what information was included in the speech and how they actively engaged their audience. Then, use this information to help you deliver an unforgettable speech.

Always be yourself when you are giving a speech and you will have better luck with the audience. Sincerity is a quality that many people respect and admire. If it is clear to the audience that you are not putting on a show when you are speaking to them, they will receive your message better.

Never apologize during a speech even if you worry that you are not doing very well. Chances are, your audience doesn’t even notice. Should you make an error, simply correct it and keep going. There is no need to apologize.

 You are confined only by the walls you build yourself.

Videotape a couple of practice sessions of your public speaking engagements. When you can see yourself in action this way, you can easily see what you can improve upon. It may be the way you move your hands or the expression on your face. Seeing this on film gives you a more objective perspective.

Take a look at the venue where you are scheduled to give a speech prior to the event. This will give you a good idea of where the audience will be sitting and where you will be speaking. It will help set you at ease when you get there since the place will be a bit familiar.

Click here Do your best to deliver unique information to your audience instead of telling them things they could have easily gotten from someone else. You need to make it clear that it is you that they need to listen to. Do research to make sure that you are not giving them duplicated content.

The man who has confidence in himself gains the confidence of others

Be sure to use appropriate visual aids to make your speech more interesting. A picture or an object is worth a thousand words and can add depth and dimension to your presentation. Be creative in your choices of visual aids. Photos, paintings, sculpture, souvenirs, charts, graphs and many other types of objects can help you get your point across clearly.

Be serious about speaking in public. You need to learn the proper techniques and prepare thoroughly. Know that tons of practice goes into comfortable public speaking. Make sure you prepare correctly for each speech. This will make people remember your speeches for the right reasons instead of the wrong ones. Follow these steps to be successful at public speaking.

Be sure to practice public speaking out loud. It may sound simple, but a lot of people tend to practice in their head. They speak the words internally instead of speaking out loud. This can cause all sorts of issues the day of your speech. Get used to hearing your voice, so it doesn’t throw you.

Even if you have terrible stage fright, you can take heart in the fact that it probably will not kill you. You may feel just awful with butterflies in your stomach and sweaty palms, but your audience will never know. Just take a few deep breaths and focus on the EXIT sign, and you’ll be fine.

Organize your speech logically. It is important to sit down and write your speech out and ensure that it flows logically. Think of the questions that will come to people’s minds while you are giving your speech and try to include the information in your speech. Allow your speech to flow from one area to the next seamlessly.

As you can see, public speaking is an art that anyone can learn. These suggestions are a great place to begin. As you work more on your skill, you will become more at ease. Eventually, you will develop your own techniques to help you through your public speaking engagements.

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automatic gate



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Need To Deal With Dog-related Issues? Read This Article



Are you looking for advice on being a better pet owner? Could you use a few tips on how to provide for your dog? You’re in the perfect place. This article is bursting at the seams with tips, tricks, and suggestions, all of which will help you do right by your pet.


If the cost of your dog’s high-quality food is a burden for your family, team up with another one and buy in bulk. The big-name pet store chains offer top rated names in pet cuisine at a significant discount when bought in the larger quantities. You can minimize the cost for you and some friends while still providing your dogs with fresh and wholesome meals.

If you are thinking of getting a new dog for your family, be sure you are prepared for this commitment. Smaller dogs will require at least a 14-16 year commitment, and larger dogs will require at least 10 years. If you are not prepared to own the dog for its entire life, then do not choose a dog as a pet.

Although the sound may be cute, your dog’s nails shouldn’t click along the floor when it walks. That’s a sign that the nails are too long. The nails should actually just barely touch the ground. Seek the advice of a professional on what tools are the best for giving your dog a pedicure.

Home Remedies to Prevent or Stop Your Dog from Licking Their Paws

Brush your dog often, even if he’s got short hair. It’s good for his coat and skin and can alert you of possible issues like fleas, tics and eczema. The dog will also enjoy the attention and brushing him regularly will keep more of his fur from flying around the house and landing on your furniture and carpets.

Click here Accept the aging process in your dog and know how to meet his changing needs. Your older dog may require dietary changes, more rest and not be as playful as he once was. This doesn’t mean he should be left to grow old in a corner. Adapt to his needs and make his golden years enjoyable!

Keep your dog in good shape. He can suffer with the same weight-related issues that you can, so make sure he gets plenty of healthy exercise and eats a well-balanced diet. Remember that walking will benefit you as well, so make it a part of your daily routine together to be happier and healthier.

Check now If you do not have any ear cleaner solution on hand, you can use a baby wipe instead. Simply wrap it around the tip of your finger and wipe the inside of the ear’s surface. Only go as far as your finger can easily fit. Do not use Q-tips as they can injure the ear.

If you’re trying to break one of your dog’s unwanted habits, make sure that you understand that it will not happen overnight. Breaking a habit takes time and patience. Don’t get discouraged and give up if it seems like your pup isn’t making progress. Keep at it and maybe try changing your approach to the training. Sometimes this can be the boost that your dog needs.

When you own a dog, you typically understand the general costs of ownership, such as food, vet visits, and grooming. A generally overlooked cost is emergency situations. Although it may not happen frequently, you should have a bit of money set aside for any emergency that may arise. It’s better to be prepared for an emergency vet visit than to wonder how you are going to pay for it.

See more If you are a very enthusiastic owner of a pure-bred dog, join your local AKC. They are an active social group where you can share your love for your dog, learn a lot and make new friends too. The experience can also help prepare you and your dog for entering contests and winning shows!

Home Remedies to Prevent or Stop Your Dog from Licking Their Paws

When it comes to feeding your dog, make sure that you are using a reputable brand that contains enough nutrition. This is important because there are dog foods that contain an undesirable amount of filler in the food. You want to be sure that your dog is getting the amount of nutrients that it needs in order for it to be healthy.

If separation anxiety plagues your dog, or you want your dog to feel less lonely, play some music while you are at work. That noise will help your dog feel more secure, and it will help him feel he’s not alone. It might help with any anxiety issues.

Brush your dog’s teeth every week. Use a child’s toothbrush that is soft, some nylon pantyhose over your finger, or a gauze pad. Don’t use regular toothpaste. Instead, try using a baking soda and water paste or toothpaste made for dogs. Clean their teeth one to two times a week.

Be prepared to have a lot of patience with your dog during potty-training. Much like children, dogs learn at different speeds and ages and your canine may be slow or stubborn. Have good resources at your fingertips to assist your efforts and remember not to get angry when your dog has “accidents” as that will only impede his progress.

When you are enjoying a snack, you might be tempted to share a little with your dog. You can do this with some foods, but not all. Grapes and chocolate should never be given to canines. They can cause illnesses and, in some cases, even death, and your dog will not benefit by receiving them.

If you have a dog, it is important that you see the vet for a routine check up at least twice a year. Doing so verifies the good health of your beloved family member. If a problem is caught, it is more likely to be less detrimental if caught sooner than later.

When you start training your dog, experiment with different rewards systems. The goal is to learn what type of reward motivates your dog the most. If food works best for your dog, reward it with tiny hot dog pieces. If your dog is toy driven, short games can be a great reward. Petting can be the best reward too.

These simple tips for taking good care of your dog apply whether your pup is a terrier or a retriever, old or young, furry or hairless. That is what makes using everything you have learned so important – you know it will apply in your situation! Love your dog daily by doing all you can to be the best owner.

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